Organization-wide efforts to install and make permanent operating changes where employees continuously improve their ability to enhance services that customers will find of value. With emphasis on “total” business processes that include departments in addition to marketing (for example sales, accounting and finance, and HR) whom are obligated to improve their operations; “management” emphasizes that executives are obligated to actively manage quality through training, staffing, and goal setting. While there is a requirement for total executive level buy-in, this approach typically draws heavily on the previously developed tools and techniques of quality control already existing in the organization.